G spot – myths and reality


Authors: Z. Pastor
Authors‘ workplace: NZZ GONA, Soukromé sexuologické centrum, Praha, vedoucí lékař MUDr. Z. Pastor
Published in: Ceska Gynekol 2010; 75(3): 211-217

Overview

Objective:
The purpose of this review is to give an overview of anatomical and physiological assumptions of female sexual response. To notify on new models of female sexual behavior. To clarify and discuss some of the hypothesis concerning the theory of forms, nature and possibilities of female sexual response in particular relating to the area known as the G spot.

Subject:
Systematic review.

Setting:
GONA, Private Sexological Centre, Prague.

Subject and methods:
Current literature review.

Conclusion:
Female sexual responses are very variable in their display. The female sexual response is modified by anatomical and physiological capabilities of each individual. Emotional and psychogenic factors have an important role. Interpretation of by science unsubstantiated hypothesis or marginal facts in sexual life as standard facts may lead to female sexual dysfunctions and relationship issues. Existence of a specific anatomical structure known as the G spot has not been proven by any relevant scientific studies.

Key words:
G spot, models of female sexual response, orgasm, female ejaculation, female sexuality.


Sources

1. Addiego, F., Belzer, E., Comolli, J., et al. Female ejaculation: a case study. J Sex Res, 1981, 17, p. 1–13.

2. Alzate, H., Londono, M. Vaginal erotic sensitivity. J Sex Marital Ther, 1984, 10, p. 49-56.

3. Arjen, A., Turnhout, V., Hage, J., et al. The female corpus spongiosum revisited. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 1995, 74, p. 767–771.

4. Bancroft, J. Human sexuality and its problems, 2nd ed. London: Churchill Livingstone, 1989.

5. Basson, R. Human sex response cycles. J Sex Marital Ther, 2001, 27, p. 33–43.

6. Basson, R., Althof, S., Davis, S., et al. Summary of the recommendations on sexual dysfunctions in women. J Sex Med, 2004, 1, p. 24-34.

7. Basson, R., Wierman, ME., Lankveld J., et al. Summary of the recommendations on sexual dysfunctions in women. J Sex Med, 2010, 7, p. 314–326.

8. Brody, S., Costa, RM. Vaginal orgasm is associated with less use of immature psychological defense mechanisms. J Sex Med, 2008, 5, p. 1167–1176.

9. Buisson, O., Foldes, P., Paniel, BJ. Sonography of the clitoris. J Sex Med, 2008, 5, p. 413–417.

10. Burri, AV., Cherkas, L., Spector, TD. Genetic and environmental influences on self-reported G-spots in women: a twin study. J Sex Med [online]. Jan. 2010, early view. [cit. 2010-02-04]. Dostupné z www: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/ journal/123232355/abstract

11. Cabello Santamaria, F. Female ejaculation: myth and reality. In: Baras-Vass, JJ., Pérez Conchillo, M. (eds.). Sexuality and human rights: proceedings of the XIII world congress of sexology, 25–29 June 1997, Valencia, Spain. Valencia: NAU Libres, p. 325–333.

12. Cartwright, R., Elvy, S., Cardozo, L. Do women with female ejaculation have detrusor overactivity? J Sex Med, 2007, 4, p. 1655–1658.

13. Čihák, R. Anatomie, 2. vyd. Praha: Grada Publishing, 2008.

14. Darling, CA., Davidson, JK., Conway-Welch, C. Female ejaculation: perceived origins, the Grafenberg spot/area, and sexual responsiveness. Arch Sex Behav, 1990, 19, 6, p. 607–611.

15. Davidson, JK., Darling, CA., Conway-Welch, C. The role of the Grafenberg spot and female ejaculation in the female orgasmic response: an empiric analysis. J Sex Marit Ther, 1989, 15, p. 105–120.

16. Davies, L. French hit back after British attack on G-spot touches nerve. Guardian [online]. 2010-01-28 [cit. 2010-01-28 ]. Dostupné z www: http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/ 2010/jan/28/g-spot-france-sex-gynaecology

17. Eizenberg, N., Briggs, C, Barker P., et al. Anatomedia - a new approach to medical education: developments in anatomy pelvis. Melbourne: McGraw-Hill, 2005, CD-ROM ISBN: 0 7340 2729 X.

18. Foldes, P., Buisson, O. The clitoral complex: a dynamic sonographic study. J Sex Med, 2009,6, p. 1223–1231.

19. Freud, S. Beyond the pleasure principle. In: Strachey, J. Standard edition of complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud. London: Hogarth Press, 1955.

20. Giles, KP., McCabe, MP. Conceptualizing women’s sexual function: Linear vs. circular models of sexual response. J Sex Med, 2009,6, p. 2761–2771.

21. Goldberg, DC., Whipple, B., Fishkin, RE., et al. The Gräfenberg spot and female ejaculation: a review of initial hypotheses. J Sex Marital Ther, 1983, 9, p. 27–37.

22. Gräfenberg, E. The role of urethra in female orgasm. Int J Sexuology, 1950, 3, p. 145–148.

23. Gravina, GL., Brandetti, F., Martini, P., et al. Measurement of the thickness of the urethrovaginal space in women with or without vaginal orgasm. J Sex Med, 2008, 5, p. 610–618.

24. Hardenbergh, EW. Psychology of the feminine sex experience. Int J Sexology, 1949, 2, p. 224-228.

25. Heiman, JR., Lentz, GM. Sexuality in the context of women’s health. In: Seltzer, VL., Pearse, WH. Women’s primary heath care: Office practice and procedures. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000, p. 1216.

26. Hilliges, M., Falconer, C., Ekman-Ordeberg, G., et al. Innervation of the human vaginal mucosa as revealed by PGP 9.5 immunohistochemistry. Acta Anat, 1995 , 153, p. 119–126.

27. Hines, TM. The G-spot: a modern gynecologic myth. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 2001, 185, 2, p. 359–362.

28. Hite, S. The Hite Report: a nation wide study of female sexuality. New York: Seven Stories Press, 2004.

29. Hoch, Z. Vaginal erotic sensitivity by sexological examination. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 1986, 65, 7, p. 767–773.

30. Huffman, J. The detailed anatomy of the paraurethral ducts in the adult human female. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 1948, 55, p. 86–101.

31. Hynie, J. Lékařská sexuologie. Praha: Univerzita Karlova, 1968.

32. Jannini, EA., Whipple, B., Kingsberg, SA., et al. Who’s afraid of the G-spot? J Sex Med, 2010,7, p. 25–34.

33. Jonášová, I. Ženský orgasmus. Praha, 2009. Doktorská disertační práce. Filozofická fakulta UK. Vedoucí doktorské práce Petr Weiss.

34. Kinsey, A., Pomeroy, WB., Martin, CE., Gebhard, PH. Sexual behavior in human female. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1953.

35. Krantz, K. Innervation of the human vulva and vagina. Obstet Gynecol, 1959, 12, p. 382–396.

36. Kratochvíl, S. Sexuální dysfunkce, 3. vyd. Praha: Grada Publishing, 2008.

37. Ladas, A., Whipple, B., Perry, J. The G spot and other discoveries about human sexuality. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1982.

38. Leiblum, SR. Critical overview of the new consensus – based definitions and classification of female sexual dysfunction. J Sex Marit Ther, 2001, 27, p. 95–103.

39. Lenck, LC., Vanneuville, G. Sphincter urethral (point G). Corrélations anatomo-cliniques. Rev Fr Gynecol Obstet, 1992, 8, 7, p. 65–69.

40. Masters, W., Johnson, V. Human sexual response. Boston: Little, Brown Co, 1966.

41. Netter, FH. Atlas of human anatomy. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier, 2006.

42. Nicholas, A., Brody, S., Sutter, P., et al. A woman’s history of vaginal orgasm is discernible from her walk. J Sex Med, 2008, 5, p. 2119–2124.

43. O’Connell, HE., Hutson, JM., Plenter, RJ., et al. Anatomical relationship between urethra and clitoris. J Urol, 1998, 159, p. 1892–1897.

44. O’Connell, HE., Anderson, C., Plenter, R., et al. The clitoris: a unified structure. Histology of the clitoral glans, body, crura and bulbs. Urodynamica, 2004, 14, p. 127–132.

45. O’Connell, HE., DeLancey J. Clitoral anatomy in nulliparous, healthy, premenopausal volunteers using unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging. J Urol, 2005, 173, p. 2060–2063.

46. O’Connell, HE., Sanjeevan K. Anatomy of female genitalia. In: Goldstein, I., Meston C., Davis, S., Traish, A. Women’s sexual function & dysfunction - Study, diagnosis and treatment. London: Taylor & Francis, 2006, p. 105–112.

47. O’Connell, HE., Eizenberg, N., Rahman, M., et al. The anatomy of the distal vagina: towards unity. J Sex Med, 2008, 5, p. 1883–1891.

48. Otto, H. Neues vom Orgasmus. Sexualmedizin, 1988, 17, S. 464–467.

49. Pastor Z. Sexualita ženy. Praha: Grada Publishing, 2007.

50. Pastor, Z. Klasifikace a etiologie ženských sexuálních dysfunkcí. Sexologia, 2007, 2, s. 15–23.

51. Pastor, Z., Horčička, L., Chmel, R. Sexual dysfunctions in women with urinary incontinence, J Sex Med, 2008, 5, 5, p. 277.

52. Pastor, Z. Sexuální problémy žen při gynekologických onemocněních. In: Weiss, P. et al. Sexuologie. Praha: Grada Publishing, 2010.

53. Pastor, Z. Gynekologická sexuologie. Praha: Mladá fronta, 2010 (v tisku).

54. Pauls, R., Mutema, G., Segal, J., et al. A prospective study examining the anatomic distribution of nerve density in the human vagina. J Sex Med, 2006, 3, p. 979–987.

55. Pein, C. SFR talk: G marks the spot. Santa Fe Reporter [online]. 2010-01-13 [cit. 2010-02-22]. Dostupné z www: http://www.sfreporter.com/stories/sfr_talk_g_marks_the_spot/5283/

56. Puppo, V. G-spot -ISSWSH congress 2009- Sexual medicine experts have voted against the existence of G-spot [online]. 2009-03-05 [cit. 2010-01-25]. Dostupné z www:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WTNW9uY7QTU&feature=channel

57. Puppo, V. Journal sexual medicine vs Women’s sexual health – another not scientific article published by JSM [online]. 2009-08-30 [cit. 2010-01-25]. Dostupné z www: http://www.youtube.com/user/NewSexology?blend=2&ob=1#p/u/3/iYy13zPZIpE

58. Rabinerson, D., Horowitz, E. G-spot and female ejaculation: fiction or reality? Harefuah, 2007, 146, 2, p. 145-147.

59. Seftel, A., et al. Sexual dysfunction. New York: Mosby, 2004.

60. Shafik, A. Vagino-levator reflex: description of a reflex and its role in sexual performance. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 1995, 60, p. 161–164.

61. Shindel, AW., Ferguson, GG., Nelson, CJ., et al. The sexual life of medical students: a single institution survey. J Sex Med, 2008, 5, p. 796 -803.

62. Skene, A. The anatomy and pathology of two important glands of the female urethra. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 1880, 13, p. 265–270.

63. Standring, S. Gray’s Anatomy. The anatomical basis of clinical practice. 40th ed. London: Churchill-Livingstone, Elsevier, 2008.

64. Tauš, L. Problémy spojené s požadavkem orgastického prožitku žen v souvislosti s osvětovou publicitou. In: Sborník vědecké pracovní schůze České sexuologické společnosti, Ústí nad Labem, 1982.

65. Weiss, P., Zvěřina, J. Sexuální chování obyvatel ČR. 3. vyd. Praha: Dema, 2003.

66. Wimpissinger, F., Tscherney, R., Stackl, W. Magnetic resonance imaging of female prostate pathology. J Sex Med, 2009, 6, p. 1704–1711.

67. Zaviacic, M., Ablin. F. The female prostate and prostate-specific antigen. Immunohistochemical localization, implications for this prostate marker in women, and reasons for using the term “prostate” in the human female. Histopathology, 2000, 15, p. 131–142.

68. Zaviačič, M., Whipple, B. Ženská ejakulacia, ženská prostata a ženská sexualita: špecifické účasti biologie ženského pohlavia. Sexuologia, 2001, 1, 2, s. 12–18.

Labels
Paediatric gynaecology Gynaecology and obstetrics Reproduction medicine
Login
Forgotten password

Enter the email address that you registered with. We will send you instructions on how to set a new password.

Login

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account