Etiology, risk factors, and methods of postpartum depression prevention


Authors: A. Šebela;  J. Hanka;  P. Mohr
Authors‘ workplace: Národní ústav duševního zdraví, Klecany, primář prof. MUDr. P. Mohr, Ph. D.
Published in: Ceska Gynekol 2018; 83(6): 468-473
Category:

Overview

Objective:

To bring actual summary of knowledge about etiology and risk factors for development of postpartum depression, and modern methods of its prevention.

Design:

Review.

Setting:

National Institute of Mental Health, Klecany.

Methods:

Narrative review.

Results:

Both biological (sex and stress hormones, thyroid hormones) and psychosocial factors take part in development of postpartum depression. Positive personal medical history for psychiatric illness, low level of social support and domestic violence during pregnancy or after delivery are the major risk factors for development of postpartum depression. Active screening and following treatment based on cooperation between gynecology-obstetrics and psychiatry is the major method of postpartum depression prevention.

Conclusion:

Currently, there is no clear biomarker of postpartum depression available. Future use of modern technologies may increase the availability of information on mental health in perinatal period, and also bring the time non-consuming method of active screening for women at risk of postpartum depression.

Keywords

puerperium, postpartum depression, baby blues, etiology, risk factors, prevention


Sources

1. Abou-Saleh, MT., Ghubash, R., Karim, L., et al. Hormonal aspects of postpartum depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 1998, 23(5), p. 465–475.

2. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Arlington, VA, American Psychiatric Association, 2013.

3. Austin, M., Kildea, S., Sullivan, E. Maternal mortality and psychiatric morbidity in the perinatal period: challenges and opportunities for prevention in the Australian setting. Med J Aust, 2007, 186(7), p. 364–367.

4. Bayrampour H., Tomfohr. L., Tough S. Trajectories of perinatal depressive and anxiety symptoms in a community cohort. J Clin Psychiatry, 2016, 77(11), p. e1467–e1473.

5. Bloch, M., Schmidt, PJ., Danaceau, M., et al. Effects of gonadal steroids in women with a history of postpartum depression. Am J Psychiatry, 2000, 157, p. 924–930.

6. Bobo, WV., Yawn, BP. Concise review for physicians and other clinicians: postpartum depression. Mayo Clin Proc, 2014, 89, p. 835–844. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.01.027.

7. Břicháček, V. Edinburghská škála postnatální deprese: ověření v České republice. Iga MZ ČR 2000.

8. Cox, JL., Holden, JM., Sagovsky, R. Detection of postnatal depression: Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Brit J Psychiatry, 1987, 150, p. 782–786.

9. Douma, SL., Husband, C., O’Donnell, ME., et al. Estrogen-related mood disorders: reproductive life cycle factors. Adv Nurs Sci, 2005, 28, p. 364–375.

10. Epperson, EP., et al. Postpartum depression: a common complication of childbirth. In Hendricks V. Psychiatric disorders in pregnancy and the postpartum. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2006, p. 41–82.

11. Fiala, A., Švancara, J., Klánová, J., Kašpárek, T. Sociodemographic and delivery risk factors for developing postpartum depression in a sample of 3233 mothers from the Czech ELSPAC study. BMC Psychiatry, 2017, 17, p. 104. doi:10.1186/s12888-017-1261-y.

12. Glynn, LM., Sandman, CA. Evaluation of the association between placental corticotrophin-releasing hormone and postpartum depressive symptoms. Psychosomat Med, 2014, 76(5), p. 355–362.

13. Groër, MW., Morgan, K. Immune, health and endocrine characteristics of depressed postpartum mothers. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2007, 32, p. 133–139.

14. Guintivano, J., Sullivan, PF., Stuebe, AM., et al. Adverse life events, psychiatric history, and biological predictors of postpartum depression in an ethnically diverse sample of postpartum women. Psychol Med, 2018, 48(7), p. 1190–1200.

15. Hahn-Holbrook, J., Cornwell-Hinrichs, T., Anaya, I. Economic and health predictors of national postpartum depression prevalence: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression of 291 studies from 56 countries. Front Psychiatry, 2018,8, p. 248. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00248. eCollection 2017.

16. Hahn-Holbrook, J., Dunkel Schetter, C., Chander, A., Hobel, C. Placental corticotropin-releasing hormone mediates the association between prenatal social support and postpartum depression. Clin Psychol Sci, 2013, 1, p. 253–265.

17. Henshaw, C. Mood disturbance in the early puerperium: a review. Arch Womens Ment Health, 2003, 6, Suppl. 2, S33–S42. doi: 10.1007/s00737-003-0004-x.

18. Ingram, JC., Greenwood, RJ., Woolridge, MW. Hormonal predictors of postnatal depression at 6 months in breastfeeding women. J Reprod Infant Psychol, 2003, 21, p. 61–68.

19. Josefsson, A., Berg, G., Nordin, C., Sydsjö, G. Prevalence of depressive symptoms in late pregnancy and postpartum. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 2001, 80, p. 251–255. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0412.2001.080003251.x.

20. Kingston, D., Austin, MP., Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S., et al. Pregnant Women‘s Views on the Feasibility and Acceptability of Web-Based Mental Health E-Screening Versus Paper-Based Screening: A randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res, 2017, 19(4), p. e88.

21. Laurent, H., Goodman, SH., Stowe, ZN., et al. Course of ante- and postnatal depressive symptoms related to mothers‘ HPA axis regulation. J Abnorm Psychol, 2018, 127(4), p. 404–416.

22. Mohr, P. Poporodní psychické poruchy. In Takács, L., Sobotková, D., Šulová, L. Psychologie v perinatální péči: Praktické otázky a náročné situace. Praha: Grada, 2015, s. 75–101.

23. Nierop, A., Bratsikas, A., Zimmermann, R., Ehlert, U. Are stress-induced cortisol changes during pregnancy associated with postpartum depressive symptoms? Psychosomat Med, 2006, 68, p. 931–937.

24. O’Hara, MW., McCabe, JE. Postpartum depression: current status and future directions. Annu Rev Clin Psychol, 2013, 9, p. 379–407. doi: 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050212-185612.

25. O’Hara, MW., Rehm, LP., Campbell, SB. Predicting depressive symptomatology: cognitive-behavioral models and postpartum depression. J Abnorm Psychol, 1982, 91, p. 457–461.

26. Okun, ML., Luther, J., Prather, AA., et al. Changes in sleep quality, but not hormones predict time to postpartum depression recurrence. J Affect Disord, 2011, 130, p. 378–384.

27. Pearlin, LI., Lieberman, MA., Menaghan, EG., Mullan, JT. The stress process. J Health Soc Behav, 1981, 22, p. 337–356.

28. Rajkumar, RP. Prolactin and psychopathology in schizophrenia: a literature review and reappraisal. Schizophrenia Res Treat, 2014, 2014, p. 175360. doi:10.1155/2014/175360.

29. Sandman, CA., Glynn, L., Dunkel Schetter, C., et al. Elevated maternal cortisol early in pregnancy predicts third trimester levels of placental corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH): priming the placental clock. Peptides, 2006, 27, p. 1457–1463.

30. Skrundz, M., Bolten, M., Nast, I., et al. Plasma oxytocin concentration during pregnancy is associated with development of postpartum depression. Neuropsychopharmacology, 2011, 36, p. 1886–1893.

31. Sobotková, D., Štembera, Z. Psychologické aspekty v perinatální medicíně v letech 1980–2000: III. poporodní období. Čes Gynek, 2003, 68(6), s. 385–389.

32. Sobotková, D., Šembera, Z. Psychologické aspekty v perinatální medicíně v letech 1980–2000: I. těhotenství. Čes Gynek, 2003, 68(4), s. 249–254.

33. Stuebe, AM., Grewen, K., Meltzer-Brody, S. Association between maternal mood and oxytocin response to breastfeeding. J Women’s Health (Larchmt), 2013, 22, p. 352–361.

34. Szpunar, MJ., Parry, BL. A systematic review of cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and prolactin in peripartum women with major depression. Arch Womens Ment Health, 2018, 21(2), p. 149–161.

35. Takács, L., Smolík, F., Mlíková Seidlerová, J., et al. Poporodní blues – česká adaptace dotazníku „Maternity Blues Questionnaire“. Čes Gynek, 2016, 81(5), s. 355–368.

36. Taylor, A., Glover, V., Marks, M., Kammerer, M. Diurnal pattern of cortisol output in postnatal depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2009, 34, p. 1184–1188.

37. Turkcapar, AF., Kadioglu, N., Aslan, E., et al. Sociodemographic and clinical features of postpartum depression among Turkish women: a prospective study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 2015, 15, p. 108–115.

38. Viktorin, A., Meltzer-Brody, S., Kuja-Halkola, R., et al. Heritability of perinatal depression and genetic overlap with nonperinatal depression. Am J Psychiatry, 2016, 173, p. 158–165.

39. Wesseloo, R., Kamperman, AM., Bergink, V., Pop, VJM. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies during early gestation and the subsequent risk of first-onset postpartum depression: A prospective cohort study. J Affect Disord, 2018, 225, p. 399–403.

40. Yim, IS., Glynn, LM., Dunkel-Schetter, C., et al. Risk of postpartum depressive symptoms with elevated corticotropin-releasing hormone in human pregnancy. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 2009, 66(2), p. 162–169.

Labels
Paediatric gynaecology Gynaecology and obstetrics Reproduction medicine
Login
Forgotten password

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account

Forgotten password

Enter the email address that you registered with. We will send you instructions on how to set a new password.

Login

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account