Traditional and contemporary views on the functional morphology of the fallopian tubes and their importance for gynecological practice

Authors: N. Hamranová 1,2 ;  N. Hocinec 3;  J. Záhumenský 4 ;  M. Csöbönyeiová 1 ;  M. Klein 1;  C. Feitscherová 1;  I. Varga 1
Authors‘ workplace: Ústav histológie a embryológie, LF UK v Bratislave, Slovenská republika 1;  Gynekologicko-pôrodnícka klinika FN Trenčín, Slovenská republika 2;  Gynekologicko-pôrodnícke oddelenie, Nemocnica AGEL, Komárno, Slovenská republika 3;  II. gynekologicko-pôrodnícka klinika LF UK a UN Bratislava, Slovenská republika 4
Published in: Ceska Gynekol 2023; 88(1): 33-43
Category: Review Article
doi: 10.48095/cccg202333


The uterine tube, belonging to the female internal reproductive organs, is the only tubular organ in the human body that has, under physiological conditions, a transport function occurring in two opposite directions. It transports the picked-up oocyte released during ovulation and early embryo towards the uterine cavity. At the same time, it can transport spermatozoa towards the abdominal opening of the fallopian tube. Moreover, the uterine tube has many other vital functions as sperm selection (one of the crucial factors preventing polyspermy) and the production of tubal fluid. This unique secretion is essential not only for the process of fertilization but also for sperm activation and the nourishment of the early embryo during its transport into the uterine cavity. The first part of our review is focused on the historical introduction to the topic in which the reader will become familiar with the views and understanding of these peculiar organs by famous anatomists of the 16th and 17th centuries, namely Gabriele Falloppio and Renier de Graaf. The following section will cover the overview of the latest anatomical, embryological, and histological knowledge, which are also crucial for a better understanding of pathological processes affecting the fallopian tube, such as tubal infertility or tubal pregnancy. Interestingly, recent years have been very fruitful regarding uterine tube morphology, e. g. the discovery of an unique mechanism of lymphatic flow within the uterine tube mucosa, the first description of immunologically-active intraepithelial suppressor T-lymphocytes, or the observation of pacemaker cell population – telocytes – in the muscle layer.


fallopian tube – Anatomy – Embryology – history – histology – recent findings


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Paediatric gynaecology Gynaecology and obstetrics Reproduction medicine
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