Je možná prevence ovariálního karcinomu?


Autoři: Ali Tariq Aus
Působiště autorů: Department of Chemical Pathology, NHLS, Tygerberg Hospital and Stellenbosch Faculty of Medicine 
and Health Sciences, Cape Town, South Africa
Vyšlo v časopise: Ceska Gynekol 2020; 85(1): 49-58
Kategorie: Přehledový článek

Souhrn

Úvod: Program na prevenci ovariálního karcinomu by měl podporovat všechny metody snižující riziko jejího rozvoje. Patří sem metody konzervativní a chirurgické. Mezi konzervativní způsoby řadíme perorální kontraceptiva, multiparitu a kojení. Důležité jsou i takové metody, které snižují zánět a oxidační stres jako například pravidelné cvičení a zdravá strava. Mezi chirurgické metody řadíme ligaci vejcovodů, hysterektomii a profylaktickou bilaterální adnexetomii.

Cíl práce: Zdůraznit protektivní faktory v prevenci karcinomu ovarií s cílem zvýšit povědomí žen a zjistit, zda jsou tyhle způsoby jako prevence dostačující.

Metody: Přehledový článek.

Název a sídlo pracoviště: Department of Chemical Pathology, NHLS, Tygerberg Hospital and Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town.

Metodika: Literární zdroje byly vyhledávány pomocí PubMed a Google vyhledávače.

Závěr: Ovariální karcinom není kompletně preventabilní onemocnění, nicméně zavádění preventivních způsobů do praxe významně snižuje jejich incidenci. Multiparita a delší doba kojení je nejvíce zdůrazňovaným přístupem, i když není úplně možný u všech žen. Hysterektomie a ligace vejcovodů taky signifikantně snižují riziko karcinomu. Salpingektomie může poskytovat prevenci pro ženy se středním rizikem, u žen s vysokým rizikem (mutace BRCA a pozitivní rodinná anamnéza) je doporučována adnexektomie. Zdůrazňování všech těchto metod může snižovat riziko a incidenci karcinomu ovarii a potenciálně zvyšovat pětileté přežití pacientek.

Klíčová slova:

karcinom ovarii – kontraceptiva – aspirin – parita – kojení – fyzická aktivita – profylaktický chirurgický zákrok


Zdroje

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Štítky
Dětská gynekologie Gynekologie a porodnictví Reprodukční medicína
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